Ambiguity Resolution in Language Learning: Computational and Cognitive Models
Connections between the syntax assemblies and subassemblies are gated, which controls the flow of activation in the sentence structure initiated by external control signals. Binding is also achieved by gating, initiated by the co-activation of the assemblies involved. The syntax assemblies bind using their subassemblies of the same type.
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F1 shows how in 1 John can bind to knows as theme. Here, V1 and N2 activate their theme t subassemblies V-t and N-t , because a control network  recognizes John as theme of knows and opens the gates to activate V-t and N-t. If no more words follow, this results in the representation of 1.
But in 2 , V-c and N-n have to bind to the complement clause C1 instead. At 0 ms, knows activates V-t and V-c, anticipating a theme or complement. At ms, N-t and N-n are activated as potential roles of John. Initially V-t and N-t start to bind and win the competition with V-c and N-n. At ms, likes initiates the activation of clause C1 as complement, which starts to bind with N-n and V-c. This results in the competitions V-c with V-t and N-n with N-t.
N-n and V-c win the competition, which results in the correct binding in 2 and overrides the binding V-t with N-t that would arise in 1. The dynamical resolution of a sentence ambiguity in line with human processing illustrates the possibility to implement aspects of high-level cognition in neuronal models based on population dynamics.
Neural blackboard architectures of combinatorial structures in cognition Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29, Learning of control in a neural architecture of grounded language processing. Cognitive Systems Research, 11, 93— Keywords: ambiguity resolution, Neural assemblies, Neural sentence model, Neural population dynamics, Syntax Processing. Presentation Type: Poster, to be considered for oral presentation. Topic: Computational neuroscience. Citation: Van Der Velde F Linking population dynamics and high-level cognition: Ambiguity resolution in a neural sentence processing model.
Language production concerns how people produce language, either in written or spoken form, in a way that conveys meanings comprehensible to others. One of the most effective ways to explain the way people represent meanings using rule-governed languages is by observing and analyzing instances of speech errors. They include speech dysfluencies like false starts, repetition, reformulation and constant pauses in between words or sentences; also, slips of tongue, like blendings, substitutions, exchanges e. Spoonerism , and various pronunciation errors. These speech errors yield significant implication on language production, in that they reflect that: .
It is useful to differentiate between three separate phases of production: conceptualization " determining what to say , formulation translating the intention to say something into linguistic form , and execution the detailed articulatory planning and articulation itself. Many of the experiments conducted in psycholinguistics, especially earlier on, are behavioral in nature.
In these types of studies, subjects are presented with linguistic stimuli and asked to perform an action. For example, they may be asked to make a judgment about a word lexical decision , reproduce the stimulus, or name a visually presented word aloud.
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Reaction times to respond to the stimuli usually on the order of milliseconds and proportion of correct responses are the most often employed measures of performance in behavioral tasks. Such experiments often take advantage of priming effects , whereby a "priming" word or phrase appearing in the experiment can speed up the lexical decision for a related "target" word later. As an example of how behavioral methods can be used in psycholinguistics research, Fischler investigated word encoding using the lexical decision task.
He asked participants to make decisions about whether two strings of letters were English words. Sometimes the strings would be actual English words requiring a "yes" response, and other times they would be nonwords requiring a "no" response. A subset of the licit words were related semantically e.
Fischler found that related word pairs were responded to faster when compared to unrelated word pairs. This facilitation suggests that semantic relatedness can facilitate word encoding. Recently, eye tracking has been used to study online language processing. Beginning with Rayner  the importance and informativity of eye-movements during reading was established. Later, Tanenhaus et al.
Assuming that eye movements are closely linked to the current focus of attention, language processing can be studied by monitoring eye movements while a subject is presented auditorily with linguistic input. The analysis of systematic errors in speech , writing and typing of language as it is produced can provide evidence of the process which has generated it. Errors of speech, in particular, grant insight into how the mind processes language production while a speaker is in the midst of an utterance.
Speech errors tend to occur in the lexical , morpheme , and phoneme encoding steps of language production, as seen by the ways errors can manifest. Speech errors will usually occur in the stages that involve lexical, morpheme, or phoneme encoding, and usually not the first step of semantic encoding. Until the recent advent of non-invasive medical techniques, brain surgery was the preferred way for language researchers to discover how language works in the brain. For example, severing the corpus callosum the bundle of nerves that connects the two hemispheres of the brain was at one time a treatment for some forms of epilepsy.
Researchers could then study the ways in which the comprehension and production of language were affected by such drastic surgery. Where an illness made brain surgery necessary, language researchers had an opportunity to pursue their research. Brain imaging techniques vary in their spatial and temporal resolutions fMRI has a resolution of a few thousand neurons per pixel, and ERP has millisecond accuracy. Each type of methodology presents a set of advantages and disadvantages for studying a particular problem in psycholinguistics. Computational modelling, such as the DRC model of reading and word recognition proposed by Max Coltheart and colleagues,  is another methodology and refers to the practice of setting up cognitive models in the form of executable computer programs.
Such programs are useful because they require theorists to be explicit in their hypotheses and because they can be used to generate accurate predictions for theoretical models that are so complex that they render discursive analysis unreliable. Psycholinguistics is concerned with the nature of the computations and processes that the brain undergoes to comprehend and produce language. For example, the cohort model seeks to describe how words are retrieved from the mental lexicon when an individual hears or sees linguistic input.
Recent research using new non-invasive imaging techniques seeks to shed light on just where certain language processes occur in the brain. There are a number of unanswered questions in psycholinguistics, such as whether the human ability to use syntax is based on innate mental structures or emerges from interaction with other humans, and whether some animals can be taught the syntax of human language.
- Psycholinguistics - Wikipedia.
- One-Group Xenon Reactivity Calculations [declassified].
- Sarah H. Parcak.
Two other major subfields of psycholinguistics investigate first language acquisition , the process by which infants acquire language, and second language acquisition. In addition, it is much more difficult for adults to acquire second languages than it is for infants to learn their first language bilingual infants are able to learn both of their native languages easily. Thus, sensitive periods may exist during which language can be learned readily. It also seems to be the case that the more languages one knows, the easier it is to learn more.
The field of aphasiology deals with language deficits that arise because of brain damage. Studies in aphasiology can both offer advances in therapy for individuals suffering from aphasia, and further insight into how the brain processes language. A short list of books that deal with psycholinguistics, written in language accessible to the non-expert, includes:.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Study of relations between psychology and language. Outline History Index. Grammatical theories. Main article: Language acquisition. Main article: Language comprehension. Main article: Language production. Main article: Speech error.